Cite this chapter as: Felzmann H. The argument here is over which facts argue for the morality of a particular action, not simply over the morality of particular principles. It is difficult to define happiness as it varies between different individuals. They help healthcare providers overcome challenges and conflicts that arise in the profession. The Common Good Approach Which action leads me to act as the sort of person I should be? What action would an Act Utilitarian take? With respect to shops located in the least affluent areas of the city, economic advantage is maximized by systematically discriminating against these less profitable stores. Therefore, it is essential to see the good and bad side to become even more informed about a decision that should be made. Utilitarians also differ in their views about the kind of question we ought to ask ourselves when making an ethical decision.
However, because they focus on different ethical features, the conclusions reached through one framework will occasionally differ from the conclusions reached through one or both of the others. Individuals who consistently make decisions based on their personal benefit may create legal liabilities for a company that can lead to bankruptcy. Many of these standards can lead to a cohesive ethical decision-making model. In an organisational context, utilitarianism basically states that a decision concerning business conduct is proper if and only if that decision produces the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals. Law may have a difficult time designing or enforcing standards in some important areas, and may be slow to address new problems. The principles provided by the theory are not thorough guidelines that should guide a medical practitioner on making ethical decisions but rather collection or related matters that can be considered when making ethical decisions.
Outcomes may be quantified in such terms as contentment and suffering, the relative value of individual preferences, monetary gain or loss, or the short-term and long-term effects of an action. Putting the Frameworks Together By framing the situation or choice you are facing in one of the ways presented above, specific features will be brought into focus more clearly. Should the officer believe the rule would be detrimental to society, the officer should consider this as well, and at least consider making the arrest. One then creates a spreadsheet with the alternative solutions and the attributes. Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832 developed the principles of utility by defining it as a measure of maximizing pleasure while minimizing pain.
This seems to be the point that animal rights activists stress in advocating a ban on the use of animals in safety testing such products as cosmetics. The person using the Consequences framework desires to produce the most good. The theory is based on four principles that include autonomy. It only considers the happiness of the majority while simply ignoring the right of the minority even though they might be justified. Weaknesses The theory replaces the moral theory and rules with principles that are one of the greatest weaknesses of the principlism theory.
Those who practice most forms of utilitarianism recognise that one cannot cause great harm to certain others in order to achieve a desirable or noble end. Their differences harken back to the original writers on the topic, the nineteenth-century philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Ethical conduct is whatever a fully virtuous person would do in the circumstances. The detective realizes that the suspect is likely to recommit the crime, and therefore decides to plant false forensic evidence on the suspect to implicate him. A rights approach protects and respects the moral rights of individuals impacted by decisions. The Justice Approach Which action serves the community as a whole, not just some members? Rule utilitarians, then, focus on the rules for acting rather than on individual actions themselves.
And that the services provided, the solution and the modes of intervention used are determined by society. Hence, the emphasis in utilitarianism is on the net utility of the set of outcomes resulting from a decision being considered. Business executives commonly embrace such consequentialist approaches to ethical problems because they are so compatible with traditional business thinking. We can reasonably say that society at large is becoming more relaxed about marijuana use, and the movement to legalize marijuana is strong and getting stronger. Thus, most utilitarians hold the position that moral choices must be evaluated by calculating the net benefits of each available alternative action. However, with hard work and perseverance, you can create the type of work atmosphere that you desire for yourself and those around you. The manager rationalizes that as long as the meats and vegetables are above some minimally acceptable quality level, it is in the best financial interest of the supermarket chain to take whatever action it can to enhance overall operations.
The children would suffer and die if parents did not care for them. Also, the application is not enough. Even though a particular action has produced the greatest economic good for the greatest number, that still does not prove that the action is just and proper when both production and consumption are seen to victimise some participants and, arguably, the consumers as well in other than economic terms. Ethical decision making attempts to promote the company as a whole, rather than letting one individual profit from business decisions. Our ability to measure and to predict the benefits and harms resulting from a course of action or a moral rule is dubious, to say the least. The moral dilemma is such that we are required to determine what the consequences or the end result should be. In other words, we have a ethical obligation to perform the action.
Utilitarianism as an ethics theory primarily values the good of the community over the good of the individual. Sometimes using utilitarian principles may be harmful to a group of people or to an individual. However, suppose we had a rule that said that banks should not foreclose whenever the action of foreclosing would cause more harm than foreclosing. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of the frameworks will be helpful in deciding which is most useful in approach the particular situation with which we are presented. Many religions promote ethical decision-making but do not always address the full range of ethical choices that we face.