Late in 1844, Emerson purchased land around Walden Pond. He extends the logic of his argument about civil disobedience to include any cause that might violate an individual's sense of moral conscience. Thoreau again urges us to face life as it is, to reject materialism, to embrace simplicity, serenely to cultivate self, and to understand the difference between the temporal and the permanent. Henry David Thoreau was a Transcendentalist Published in 1854, Thoreau's Walden is one the most prominent works of transcendental literature. He describes surveying the bottom of Walden in 1846, and is able to assure his reader that Walden is, in fact, not bottomless. Once an individual has critically observed his shortcomings, his first step in reforming his life should be to turn inward, as the narrator did when he left society, and discover what he, alone, is capable of being.
In the period after he returned from Walden, Thoreau reveled in tramping about the woods and fields of Concord, sometimes with the Emerson children and other young companions, and explored in his journal what Concord meant to him. Our proper business is to seek the reality — the absolute — beyond what we think we know. Upon Thoreau's release, it seemed some kind of change had come over the town, the State and the country. By reason of this, if we look into the heavens, they are concave, and if we were to look into a gulf as bottomless, it would be concave also. I would not have every man nor every part of a man cultivated, any more than I would have every acre of earth cultivated: part will be tillage, but the greater part will be meadow and forest.
He regrets the superficiality of hospitality as we know it, which does not permit real communion between host and guest. He effectively employed a variety of techniques — paradox, exaggeration, and irony, for example — to create a penetrating prose. By the end of 1843, Thoreau was ready to return to the landscape and the community that formed such a large part of his identity. He extrapolates from the pond to humankind, suggesting the scientific calculation of a man's height or depth of character from his exterior and his circumstances. Thoreau was educated in Concord at Miss Phoebe Wheeler's school, in the public school on what is now Monument Square, and under the tutelage of Phineas Allen at the Concord Academy.
For seven years after Thoreau's return from Walden Pond in 1847, he worked and reworked his material about his sojourn there, extensively and repeatedly revising what he had produced. He wore inexpensive but durable clothing. The children's aunts Louisa Dunbar and Maria, Jane, Sarah, and Elizabeth Thoreau also influenced the children Sarah and Elizabeth lived and ran a boarding house in the Concord home that their father had bought in 1799. Thoreau was let in on the gossip and history of the jail and was shown several verses that were composed in the jail. In Walden, these regions are explored by the author through the pond. Thoreau prophesies an American mythology based on the potential of the west. The best you can write will be the best you are.
Blake inherited Thoreau's manuscripts except for his surveys, which went to the Concord Free Public Library from Sophia Thoreau, who died in 1876. . Sophia Thoreau and Emerson edited the collection Excursions, published in 1863. Thoreau refers to talk of piping water from Walden into town and to the fact that the railroad and woodcutters have affected the surrounding area. Politically and socially, there was the and , as well as the. Thoreau is trying to get people away from a mentality that is consumed by matters of business and society to think deeply about ourselves and our relationship to nature. Like the narrator, they will find that life can be a cause for celebration; life does not have to be a reason for weary complaint.
Walking as presented in the essay is man's attempt to seek and to understand the wild, to confront it directly, on its own terms, outside of ordinary life and of what we think we know to be reality. Analysis Walden begins with the narrator's explanation of why he chose to address himself to his audience in the first person singular voice. During the late 1840s and the 1850s, Thoreau made a number of excursions beyond Concord — to Maine first visited by Thoreau in 1846, while he lived at Walden in 1853 and 1857; to Cape Cod in 1849, 1850, 1855, and 1857; to Quebec in 1850; to Mount Monadnock in southern New Hampshire which he visited repeatedly over the years in 1852 and 1858; and to the White Mountains to which he first journeyed in 1839 with his brother John in 1858. Although the essay resulted from the union of two lectures prepared in 1851, it is difficult not to think of it as a deathbed communication, an ultimate, emphatic reiteration and extension of themes developed throughout Thoreau's writings, a final exhortation to the reader to be alert to nature. He does not believe that he must accept men as they are and give up thinking of how they ought to be.
He prefers solitude, though he also takes pleasure in companionship, and he believes in the power of work, both intellectual and physical, though not too strenuous, to dignify his life and bring him closer to a higher existence. Thoreau and Emerson also shared the common bond of grief from January of 1842, when Thoreau's brother John died of lockjaw and Emerson's first child Waldo died of scarlet fever. If the person did it to help him, then he or she was letting his or her private feelings interfere with the public good. Because Emerson was older, published, and already a leader among Transcendental thinkers, he filled the roles of teacher and patron as well as friend to Thoreau. But the walking of which I speak has nothing in it akin to taking exercise, as it is called, as the sick take medicine at stated hours — as the swinging of dumb-bells or chairs; but is itself the enterprise and adventure of the day. With the publication of his Thoreau, the Poet-Naturalist in 1873, Channing later became the first biographer of Thoreau.
He states his purpose in going to Walden: to live deliberately, to confront the essentials, and to extract the meaning of life as it is, good or bad. Holing up in a cabin by yourself for two years probably doesn't sound too appealing to many of us, but instead of trying to sell you on the validity of the idea, I'll let Thoreau explain it himself. Theophilus Brown was another Worcester friend. He writes at length of one of his favorite visitors, a French Canadian woodchopper, a simple, natural, direct man, skillful, quiet, solitary, humble, and contented, possessed of a well-developed animal nature but a spiritual nature only rudimentary, at best. Despite their early financial hardships, the Thoreau family shared a vital and sustaining home life that meant much to all of them — Henry included — as long as they lived.
He writes of fishing on the pond by moonlight, his mind wandering into philosophical and universal realms, and of feeling the jerk of a fish on his line, which links him again to the reality of nature. Why submit other people to one's own moral standard? He builds his own shack instead of getting a bank loan to buy one, and enjoys the leisure time that he can afford by renouncing larger expenditures. As his journals indicate, Thoreau enjoyed the company of farmers George Minott and Edmund Hosmer and of Edward Sherman Hoar — brother of Ebenezer Rockwood, George Frisbie, and Elizabeth Hoar a learned woman, the fiancée of Emerson's brother Charles, who died in 1836, and an intimate of the Emerson family. Thoreau begins his essay by arguing that government rarely proves itself useful and that it derives its power from the majority because they are the strongest group, not because they hold the most legitimate viewpoint. In an effort to regain his health, he journeyed to Minnesota with young naturalist Horace Mann, Jr. Emerson, fourteen years older than Thoreau, had moved to Concord in 1834, while Thoreau was a student at Harvard. However, compared with other politicians and reformers, Webster is the only sensible one.