These negative results that do not support a particular hypothesis should be noted in the results section, and then explained in the Discussion section. Indicating limitations of the study will reflect objectivity of the authors, and provide answers to the questions which will be directed by the reviewers of the journal. Did your sampling method contribute to it? In this paper we provide an argument that stem cells repopulate injured organs. So the question posed can be rephrased as follows: How can new authors be helped to base their own styles? How should I write the Discussion section? Discussing the Findings: Coming to the major part of the findings, the section should interpret the key observations, the analysis of charts and the analysis of tables. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. How does the writing process work? If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure s , likely you can combine them and be more concise.
In line with the opinions of the referees, the manuscript can be critically reviewed, and perfected. Explain your opinion on why the unexpected results happened. Show that the general research area is important, central, interesting, and problematic in some way; Move 2. . Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example.
Even though some researchers make the revision an endless process and can hardly stop after a 14th draft; having from five to seven drafts of your paper is a norm in the sciences. If a study that you cited does not support your findings, don't ignore it--clearly explain why your research findings differ from theirs. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid which is so different from writing in the humanities. The 12 Steps to an Effective Discussion Chapter To make sure your message remains crystal-clear, the Discussion chapter should be short and sweet, but it should fully state, support, elaborate, explain, and defend your conclusions. If you choose, you can create a supplemental online archive where other researchers can access the raw data if they choose to do so. Academics and researchers publish their scholarly articles to show the results they have obtained using gathered or collected data.
The Active Voice In Scientific Articles: Frequency And Discourse Functions. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum a typical standard length for journals. You will end up spotting more unnecessary words, wrongly worded phrases, or unparallel constructions. Since every paper has its unique results and findings, the Discussion section differs in its length, shape, and structure. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting.
The goal of the research context move is to show how your findings fit into the general picture of the current research and how you contribute to the existing knowledge on the topic. When you present tables or figures in your results section, make sure to describe at least some of the data included in these visual representations so that readers can clearly understand how the table works and what interpretations can be concluded from them. Before sending the manuscript to internal, and external referees, we should contact with them, and ask them if they have time to review our manuscript. A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims.
In real life applications the Robot has to deal with multiple number of objects and the total response time for all the objects motion prediction should be less than the time gap between two sensor readings. Alienation periods can cause loss of time because of need for recurrent literature reviews. We are not interested in explaining how to finish the study — we are trying to explain how to write a good conclusion for a research paper, and these are different things. The horizontal structure is especially relevant when you are conducting an interdisciplinary research. Slightly superior results are achieved with our algorithm. For some studies, age may be an important factor. On the other hand references should be promptly put in place while writing the manuscript, Sorting, and placement of the references should not be left to the last moment.
One Yale University graduate student spent a semester writing from 8 a. Its place, and importance among other studies should be indicated. Research papers present the process of testing hypotheses or models and how their findings help shape or advance a particular research topic. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Previous parts explored , , and.
Meanwhile, each word of the paragraphs should be counted, and placed carefully. Moreover, the evaluation of the alternative explanations might help you create a logical step to the next move of the discussion section: the research context. The discussion section is not always about what you found, but what you did not find, and how you deal with that. So before you move on to create your Introduction, re-read your Methods and Results sections and change your outline to match your research focus. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper.
The biggest challenge for many writers is the opening paragraph of the Discussion section. All patients underwent elective intra abdominal procedures. Be sure to mention all relevant information. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in light of about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration.
To improve your sentences, avoid unnecessary nominalizations and change passive verbs and constructions into active and direct sentences. What are your most significant results? Style: Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. Our approach on this subject is to write all structured parts of the manuscript at the same time, and start writing the manuscript while reading the first literature. That is an absolute must of what to include in the discussion section of a research paper. This group of topics related to health describes the diseases. Indeed, for most journals, this is a very brief section of about 250 to 600 words, but it might be the most difficult section due to its importance. Just as the best and most precious diamond is no more than an unattractive stone recognized only by trained professionals, your ideas and your results may go unnoticed if they are not polished and brushed.