Despite the unanimous opposition of Indian members of the legislative council, those bills were passed. Governor got the power to override ministers and executive council. Two houses were known as Federal Assembly and the council of state. Government of India Act, 1919 The Government of India Act was passed to expand the participation of Indians in the government of India. This had a progressive effect of allowing the Treasury and Cabinet increased influence in India Office affairs until its end in 1947.
There were demonstrators and Hartals all over the country. The cooperation collapsed when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established a republic in Turkey and abolished the caliphate in 1923 and also due to increasing competition between the two communal groups for power in a future independent India. Gandhi 1869—1948 and Jawaharlal Nehru 1889—1967 emerged as leaders of the Indian National Congress. Sankaran Nair Chairman , Sir Arthur Froom, Rajah Nawab Ali Khan, Sardar Shivdev Singh Uberoi, Nawab Sir Zulfiqar Ali Khan, Sir Hari Singh Gour, Sir Abdullah Al-Mamun Suhrawardy, Kikabhai Premchand and Rao Bahadur M. The provincial subjects were divided into two groups viz. The government of India Act 1919 was passed by the British Parliament To increase participation of the Indians in the government of India.
They resigned but they supported the British Government in 2nd world war. Montagu and the viceroy of India Lord Chelmsford wrote an inquiry inquiry report report regarding regarding particip participatio ation n of Indians Indians and responsi responsible ble govern governmen mentt in India, India, this this report report was publi publishe shed d in 1918, 1918, Report Report on Indian Indian constitutional constitutional Reform. The first was the Satyagraha campaign of peaceful non-cooperation urging the Indians to fast, close businesses and the boycott British goods in protest against the Rowlatt Bill of 1919 a plan to imprison people suspected of trouble-making. Others included a separate Indian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, in the same manner as the self governing dominions Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. During the World War Britain and her allies had said that they were fighting the war for the freedom of nations. This retraction of British imperialism was a result of India's enthusiastic participation in World War I.
The committee submitted its report, and after the approval of Lord Minto and Lord Morley, the Act of 1909 was passed by the British Parliament. Constituent Assembly was to work as the Central Legislature of India. It provided for the appointment of a statutory commission to inquire into and report on its working after ten years of its coming into force. The central legislature was never constituted because Indian states showed no interest to join federation of India. In the midst of this discontent, the government resorted to new measures of repression. Reaction to the Act of 1919 The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were not accepted by most quarters in India as they fell far short of the Indian expectations.
The electorate was expanded, and separate electorates Muslims elected their own representatives were kept in place, on Muslim insistence. They were conducted as per the recommendation by the report submitted by the Simon Commission in May 1930. The three Round Table Conferences of 1930—32 were a series of conferences organized by the British government to discuss constitutional reforms in India. The assembly had opposed it. Among India-related issues highlighted by the war were the increasingly contentious internecine struggles among British interest groups regarding the administration of the subcontinent and its long-term future. Under the act of 1935 first elections were held and congress won the elections.
Indian Executive The Indian executive comprised of the Governor General and his council. The Government of India Act 1935 was the longest bill among the Acts which were passed by the British Parliament. The maximum number of nominated and elected members of the Legislative Council at the Center was increased from 16 to 60. Indian Council Act of 1909 The Indian Councils Act 1909, commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India. A financial bill could not be introduced without the recommendation of the governor general. An interim Govt, was formed and the leadership of this Govt, was given to Pandit Nehru but the league did not recognise the interim Govt. The exigencies of war and the demands by different Indian groups magnified the need for reform on the constitutional front.
· The subjects were divided between the Centre and Provinces. The staunch Hindus formed an organisation. Provincial subjects had two parts - transferred and reserved. This report served as the basis for the creation of the legislation. Dominions originally referred to any land in possession of the British Empire.
The majority of members of both the Houses were chosen by direct election. In March 1919, it passed the Rowlatt Act even though every single Indian member of the Central Legislative Council opposed it. Establishment of Public Service Commission The act provided for the establishment of a Public Service Commission in India for the first time. If there was a tie, the Governor-General was supposed to summon a joint meeting to decide the matter by majority vote. The Government of India and Reform. Others included a separate Indian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, in the same manner as the self governing dominions Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
The upper house was the Council of States consisting of 34 elected and 26 nominated members and tenure of five years. Statutory Commission after 10 Years This act also made a provision in its part V, that a statutory commission would be set up at the end of 10 years after the act was passed which shall inquire into the working into the system of the government. Ministers were often not consulted on important matters too; in fact, they could be overruled by the governor on any matter that the latter considered special. In fact, the unwanted optimism of the Indian leaders also contributed to the making of Pakistan. Indian Legislative Council was replaced by a bicameral legislature having an Upper House Council of State and a Lower House Legislative Assembly.
No bill of the legislature could be deemed to have been passed unless assented to by the Governor General. He never wanted the partition of the country; he suggested that Jinnah should be invited to form the Government. Matt Matter erss of admi admini nist stra rati tion on were were firs firstt divi divide ded d betw betwee een n the the cent centre re and and the the prov provin ince cess and and then then the the prov provin inci cial al subj subjec ects ts were were furt furthe herr bifu bifurc rcat ated ed into into transferred and reserved subjects. Thus, this act represented the end of benevolent despotism and began the birth of responsible government in India. . The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929.