These allotments would then be given to Native Americans. Unlike most private trusts, the federal government bears the entire cost of administering the Indian trust. Women were no longer the caretakers of the land and they were no longer valued in the public political sphere. He famously summed up his idea as 'kill the Indian and save the man'. Nicknames General Allotment Act of 1887 Enacted by the Effective February 8, 1887 Citations Public law 24 Codification Titles amended sections created § 331 et seq.
It was amended with the Curtis Act in 1898 and the Burke Act in 1906. The Dawes Act did not originally affect reservations in Indian Territory. The death of over 200 American soldiers right around the time of the nation's centennial celebration ignited cries for revenge against the Sioux and all recalcitrant Native Americans. Although Jackson herself offered no immediate solutions, the detail in her work inspired the Reform movement, whose people saw themselves as champions of the native Americans. Luther Standing Bear, quoted in James Wilson op cit, p 314-5 8.
Its suitability for native Americans was not questioned; it was a self evident fact. It was felt that if Native people would leave behind their tribal landholding, reservations, traditions and ultimately their Indian identities then they would become like other Euroamericans. Dawes's belief that to be civilized meant to 'wear civilized clothes. Congress, aimed at decreasing federal control of affairs and increasing Indian self-government and responsibility. C the Indian Reorganization Act. The Dawes Act was passed in 1887. Land allotted to Native Americans was taken out of Trust and subject to taxation.
The Dept of Interior was aware that this was happening. Section Eight exempts the Five Civilized Tribes and several others from the act. The destruction of the tribal unit and subsequent attempts to eradicate Native languages, customs, and religions had an enormous negative impact on Native cultures. Battle of the Little Bighorn was a battle that ended in the death of over 200 American soldiers right around the time of the nation's centennial celebration, which ignited cries for revenge against the Sioux and all recalcitrant Native Americans. The common ownership of land was to be changed - reservations would be broken up into 'allotments' for families to cultivate.
Section Eight exempts the Five Civilized Tribes and several others from the act. It is extremely easy to both find materials and align them with the Common Core Standards. Indians, Bureaucrats, and Land, Westport, Connecticut: 1981. Legislative history Poster The Dawes Act of 1887 also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 , authorized the President of the United States to survey tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Native Americans. His legislation turned tribal members living on reservation lands into American citizens holding titles to their own farms. Most allotment land, which could be sold after a statutory period of 25 years, was eventually sold to non-Native buyers at b … argain prices. Children would be 'educated' -in practice indoctrinated - with the Protestant white American values instead of their traditional values.
Given the conditions on the Great Plains, the land granted to most allottees was not sufficient for economic viability of farming. If the individual was deemed incompetent, the land went back to the federal government and was offered up for public sale, which usually meant the land was handed over to white settlers. In particular, the Meriam Report found that the General Allotment Act had been used to illegally deprive Native Americans of their land rights. The defacing of a nation, etc. Even in the home, the Native woman was dependent on her husband. Most of the intentions of the Dawes Act were never accomplished. The act allotted 160 acres of land to each head of household and 80 acres to each single adult.
Requiring people to live away from their tribes was meant to break up that social structure as the defining feature of Native society. The social structure of the tribe was weakened; many nomadic Indians were unable to adjust to an agricultural existence; others were swindled out of their property; and life on the reservation came to be characterized by disease, filth, poverty, and despondency. The Secretary of Interior could force the Native American Allottee to accept title for land. Despite the now known reality of work being pretty much divided between genders, the eighteenth and nineteenth century stereotype was that the Indian men were lazy and selfish and that women did most of the work. Therefore, the Dawes Act is yet another example of the exploiting nature of the U.
To move 'from savagery through barbarism to civilization', wrote Lewis Henry Morgan, private ownership of property was needed. It now has 505 owners but the common denominator used to compute fractional interests has grown to 220,670,049,600,000. Richard White, op cit p115 12. Before allotment, women divorced easily and had important political and social status, as they were usually the center of their kin network. Although this act gives power to the allottee to decide whether to keep or sell the land, given the harsh economic reality of the time, and lack of access to credit and markets, liquidation of Indian lands was almost inevitable. The Great Plains, which was the land being granted to Native Americans, was not very suitable for farming.
It was believed that by tending their farms, the Native Americans would eventually drop their traditional ways and adopt the American way of life. According to ideals, the men were forced into the fields but the Native Americans thought this made them take on what in their society had traditionally been the woman's role, and the women were relegated to the. Tribal land would be 'allotted in severalty' - it would be split up into small family units. Division of land among heirs upon the allottees' deaths quickly led to land fractionalization. Question: What was the goal of the Dawes Act? Under its terms, the president determined the suitability of the recipients and issued the grants, usually by a formula of 160 acres to each head of household and 80 acres to each unmarried adult, with the stipulation that no grantee could alienate his land for 25 years. For the figures see Richard White, op cit p115 Back to: If you have a question or comment click here.
Section Four provides that Native Americans not residing on their reservation and Native Americans without reservations will receive the equal allotment. By owning land, following federal and state laws, farming and living in houses the Indian could finally blend in with the rest of the population. The Dawes Act and its subsequent revisions robbed Native Americans of their newfound homes in Indian Territory. Introduction What were the intentions and the consequences of the Dawes Act of 1887? To understand this, it's helpful to take a quick look at how most Native American societies operated. Many Native Americans became landless, and by the time the act was rescinded in 1934, two-thirds of Indian land had fallen into the hands of European-Americans. Their faces are pinched and without life, painting a grim picture of the effect of the schools.