For example, Leong et al. This theory also stresses that there is not one career that is best for a person. Finally, having the ability to use a number of theories and approaches better equips you to determine and meet the particular needs of each individual client. Brown 1990 argues that the biggest weakness of the theory is its failure to account for job change p357 , whilst Osipow and Fitzgerald 1996 argue that there is too much emphasis on the choice itself and not enough on the adjustment process. These beliefs about themselves and the world of work influence their approach to learning new skills and ultimately affect their aspirations and actions. They will now have that chance.
This approach to career understands occupational choice in terms of action and construction. He developed the talent-matching approach, which was later developed into the Trait and Factor Theory of Occupational Choice. In the theory Parsons set up a seven stage career counseling guideline to assist the career counselor in guiding the individual toward the appropriate job. She viewed occupational aspirations as developing through a process of circumscription eliminating the unacceptable options and choice through a process of compromise relinquishing some preferences to broaden the range of available options. There is a nearly unlimited number of potential traits that could be used to describe personality. Back then interviews were the only tool available for matching.
Gordon Allport was an early pioneer in the study of traits, which he sometimes referred to as dispositions. The ability to do ones job well and with joy will help the individual to have a better relationship with their boss, co-workers, friends and family. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century. Decision making began to be understood as an ongoing process of development and change. Throughout this essay I will be comparing the two theories by looking at their aims and methods, along with assessing their strengths and weaknesses in order to demonstrate the difference between the two theories.
Realistic 18 -into the 20s Term Super Definition Developed theory with distinct phases. The four major personality perspective attempts to describe patterns in personality, how they differ, and how they are formed. Disadvantages of being a non-sensation seeker would prevent me from trying new and exciting things that could very well enhance my personality and increase my happiness level. These include, special abilities or genetic endowments, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills. We are responsible for our own existence and for finding a purpose or meaning to our lives.
Theory and practice focused on either occupational choice or career development, but more recently these have been integrated into more complex conceptions of career. People seek career satisfaction through work roles in which they can express themselves and implement and develop their self-concept. As we know from psychology research people rarely make decisions rationally. Alternatively, career counselor could use printed material to supply vocational information. The study of human personality has fascinated people from the dawn of time. They argue that a particular weakness is the failure of the theory to integrate economic and social factors that influence career decisions p.
Orientation to sex roles ages 6-8 3. Trait and factor theory is the earliest theory that attempts to explain the process of career choice based on the theory of individual personal differences Sidek Mohd Noah, 2002. For example, the word vocational has largely been eschewed by writers in favor of career in the same way that guidance has given way to counseling and development in most contemporary literature. Gottfredson also sought to address the issue of how individuals respond when they are unable to choose and enter an acceptable occupation. Each developmental stage builds on the successful completion of the earlier stages.
Thus, occupational choice was viewed as the process of matching the perceptions of the self with the corresponding perceptions of the world of occupations. Therefore, the factor theory of this factor has been the basis of the creation of thousands of Psychological measurement tools used to measure individual intrinsic quality Sidek Mohd Noah, 2002. Aside from the issue of whether absolute certainty is attainable or desirable, it is unlikely that most of us make career decisions based on logic alone. Work accomplishments — tasks completed, supervisor ratings Tests of achievement for certification or entry into an occupation Achievement can be measured quantitatively through tests that are used for licensure, certification, or entry into a particular field or profession. Parsons created Trait and factor theory in light of the hurried urbanization, movement, expansion of the business world and the improvements in human and behavioral sciences in the United States Atli, 2016. This, they argue is a particular weakness when studying some client groups, like girls and women.
Some assessments focus on finding your personality type and then matching that type of personality with a career. Others are more like aptitude tests. His theory was very simple, you observe and talk to an individual and then you match them with the best career for them based on what you have observed. For instance, Rottinghaus, Hees and Conrath 2009 found support for the hypothesis that congruence between interests and work environment yield job satisfaction. Recent developments In the last years, studies have addressed some of the criticisms.
You can read their original journal article about the theory. Young people need customized assistance that matches their particular circumstances and involves a mixtures of strategy and chance. The three mentioned postulates of the trait and factor theory are used even in modern times. The choice process is viewed as a feedback loop, commencing with the expression of a goal, action taken to implement this goal, performance attainment information gained as a result of the action taken, feeding back into the expression of a revised goal, and so on. The scores help you figure out if your career goals are congruent with your values and temperament. When both of these things happen, it is called consonance. These beliefs, whether realistic or not, influence career choices and work related behaviour.
As individuals develop their understanding of themselves and their environment, particular occupations come to be seen as congruent or incongruent with the self. The closer the match, the greater the sense of personal and work satisfaction. Each individual will have a set of homogeneous qualities to achieve success in a kind of work. Through psychometric testing, vocational counselors can determine the occupation best suited to an individual's personality factors. The use of the assessment is essential and one of the vital instruments for the trait-factor theory. Then there is a return to the communication stage to evaluate if the need is met and so on through the cycle again. Individuals both shape and are shaped by their interactions with their contexts.