The army which was organised by a noble or a governor mostly remained loyal to its master than the Sultan. In contrast, there did survive a tradition of wall painting in the houses of the common people, especially the non-Muslims. The kotwal mmaintained law and order. The duty of his subordinates was to keep the accounts and disburse the salary of the military officers and troops. Separate treasury was maintained for Zakat.
They also kept a shield, armour and a head-gear for self-protection. Nath, A History of Sultanate Architecture, New Delhi, 1978. But as they were advised by the chief Sadr who was a religious man and as he had to follow Islamic principles while dispensing justice, it is doubtful that the non-Muslims received justice in the real sense from them. This tradition of painting was not confined to the murals alone. Justice: The Sultan was the highest judicial authority He used to hold his court twice a week and decided all types of cases. Only three Sultans sought and secured a mansur or letter of investiture from the caliph. Most of the Sultans faced the challenge of invasions of the Mongols as well from the north-west.
The power of the nobility also blunted their authority to some extent. His main duty was to deal with civil disputes among the Muslims, but later his jurisdiction widened and embraced the supervision of Awqaf. They could not engage themselves in wars for extension of territory without prior permission of the Sultan and when they engaged in it they were required to pay part of the booty to the Sultan. Thus, provincial administration was headed by the muqti or wali. Initially it was only Turks who had the monopoly in joining the. Initially, these were allotted to leading Turkish nobles.
After his death in 1372, his son became wazir and followed his father's ideas for a long period, but this led to jealousy, and in 1387 he was killed in a quarrel with a noble. They had to pay the religious tax, Jizya. The head of the Iqta was called by different names, i. It means that the grant of iqta did not imply a right to the land. Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Leiden, 1980.
Otherwise, it was a duty imposed on the Sultan which was taken indifferently. Under Islamic law, jizya was a tax levied on non-Muslims. These contractors used to extract as much revenue from the peasants as could be possible so that they could have good surplus after depositing the required amount of revenue in the state-treasury. Nearer home, towards the north-west, many minor dynashes carved out small states, one of which was based at Ghazna Ghazni. Due to this reason, with the exception of some of them, their policies were influenced by the Ulema and Islam was accepted as the religion of the state making the Delhi Sultanate a theocratic state in theory though it could not be possible in practice. Next to him was the qazi-ul mumalik or qazi-ul quzzat , the chief judge of the Sultanate. Islam had already entered India via Sind and up the Indus; by the late 10th century Ismaʿili communities had been established in and around Multan, but they were from and probably constituted a wholly Arab element.
But, the rest of the Sultans could not maintain these practices and Sultans like Firuz Tughluq allowed corrupt practices in this system because of their unwise generosity. Coinage was the ruler's prerogative : his name was inscribed on the coins sikka. Nobles, too, maintained their own karkhanas. His work was to the safeguard the Islamic Laws and its upkeep. In the early days of the sultanate, the jital, an adaptation of the old dehliwala current before Muslim rule, was the token coin in use.
. He was appointed by the central government. The Sultan was assisted by a number of ministers who were chosen by him and remained in office and functions of the ministers varied from time to time. The third part of the army was the infantry. Idem, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760, Berkeley, Calif.
The only way to remove him was rebellion and civil war. Asher Originally Published: December 15, 1994 Last Updated: November 21, 2011 This article is available in print. He particularly looked after the discipline of the army, their equipment and their dispositions on the battle field. Qanungo-Maintained previous records of produce and assessment. They were appointed by the central government. Besides the mukti, there were other officers of the central government in every Iqta. However, its greatest weakness was lack of a modern artillery.